1. General remarks
The measuring of the past time and its determining in various scientific and professional categories is as old as the existence of the human being as a conscious one. This theoretical unit, first of all of a philosophical nature, has an enormous importance for the field of artistic expression. Differing from the importance of the physical conception of time ( i.e. the one that concerns the nature and mathematical sciences), in the case of the artistic fields ( the various ones), except its physical and philosophical determination, it has psychological importance, as well as a communicative ones by which it overpasses the limits of its exactness. We cannot say anything concerning the concept of time if all of this is not accompanied by a series of theoretical analysis, which in the cases of the concrete artistic expression gets established as a compulsory element.
The similarities, as well as the differences among the various artistic fields, taken simply from the synchronically aspect of study ( or even if we wanted from a diachronic one, of one who would be concerned with the origin, etymology, or the historiography of the artistic existence), represent the possibilities of incorporating of a series of interpretations and various structures of the time shapes and forms divided concretely into its surface and deep structures.
If we are to express the objectivity of the daily events relative to the human activities, it leads us to the anthropocentric philosophy up to G.W. Hegel, which was characterized as a category of an objective absolutism. The radical changes in the various philosophical interpretations, have in fact started from John Lock, who brought the elements of irrationality and the elements of the artistic sensibility; or in one word, to the unanalyzed issues until that time.
In the contemporary days, “ the human being is a onthic and onthologic being limited by its temporality”, says M.Heidegger in his “Being and Time”. We have the post-Kantian philosophical school here, which by simple words returns to the human being its subjectivity and psychoanalyses. “ Leaving of traces”, says S. Freud, “ are a basis for the development of the signs of psychic growth of human beings; and this enables it to think about the history of writing, as well as about its existence”. Further on, Freud sees the absence of traces, on the basis of which the origin of the human artistic expression would be determined, as an element that leads towards pathology , or “ the incapability of the spiritual, physical and sexual dimensions is compensated by repression”.
The art, being a very individualistic and emotional expression of being of an “ontological” background according to Heidegger, its possibility the way of coming out in the surface structure through the deep structure according to the linguists John Lyons and Noam Chomsky , sees through the important element of time; and not only this, not only by its philosophical determination but also by its psychological and linguistic one. These in fact, represent various levels or better various analytical grounds, which according to Arthur Schopenhouer repeat themselves endlessly. The fundamental importance of these “ repetitions of the artistic categories” is the determining of the changing effects, their similarity and development from one repetition to another. Examples: if the artistic description of a writer in a phrase, sentence, or finally in a fragment or a text (which again have to do with time and quantity) has not reached the right aim of his purpose in the description process, or better narratological and analytical process (this, in turn being the pre-expressionist phase of his writing which will happen in the future), the writer will then reach it in his next repetition; this time using new elements which contribute to his intentions . These elements are as a matter of fact the means of theory of literature: intertext, intratext, ( or the paraphrasing, ect). However, this time in a different level, depending on the fact whether this time the writer wants to explain the dreams of a protagonist, or his own psychological situation. Here we come again to the concept of time, if we want, even to the grammatical one (whether he will use the Imperfect1F, the perfect2F, first person singular or the third one). The artistic expression in the scene is measured definitely by the concept of time, since it must be dramaturgically determined which are the phases of development of events that put into functioning the rentability of time. The fragment, insert, or the monologue may make slower the philosophical flow of time, or it may make it faster? In the past, the epic poetry expressed an event which occurred in the past, the description was traditional, even in the sense of time, nevertheless, in the eras of Modern and Post-modern literature the intertext (the “middle” text) intervenes, which has happened in quite another conceptualization of time, in comparison with the general flow of events.
1. In English used by other means morphologically, not by determined morphemes in terms of suffixation or prefixation; differing from the Indo-European and Neo-Latin languages.
2. In English the Past Perfect Tense.