The attitude of Andrić and Koneski towards violence
Torment conditions the existence of altruism. The prose and the novels of Andrić, in a sense, can be understood as a result of an attempt to express altruistic philosophy of the author and his understanding of history of mankind, through described sufferings. It is evident that Godfried Ben’s lyrical –essayist attitudes had an influence in the formation of Andrić’s point of view regarding beauty and the eternity of artistic harmony. Also, the poet Walt Whitman had a great influence on Andrić. Namely, he influenced Andrić’s sense for pantheistic solidarity, for democracy and the conviction that “The future of the world is in the free traffic and in the solidarity of all races”.8F We can find the same element in the poetry of Koneski. He is deeply conscious of the existence of evil in the world, but he generously stands up for its overcoming saying that the fight and determination make the essence of human existence. Only by working can a human being resist death and misfortune; human hopelessness finds its consolation in creation. Maybe that is why he poses the question for the moral credibility of “poet’s lyre in meager times”.9F He firmly stands behind Eliot and Yesenin who, in fact, as he did, preferred to write rather that fight in meager times. Andrić as well writes his greatest works in the occupied Belgrade, isolated from the tempestuous events in the WWII. They both believe in the power of their quill. Wishes, convictions, and human eminence are, according to them, enough to overcome the numerous obstacles and chasms on the way which leads to harmony. Writer’s pledges, although vain and irrational to many people, mark the rational effort, which can overcome the metaphysical despair, and the chasm that separates life from death. That effort always helps the human being to feel encouraged by the fact that he is not alone, left and helpless, but he’s a part of the great human brotherhood.
Philosophical determinations of Andrić and Koneski are close to the understanding that the relation between the good and the evil on Earth, the relation between the altruism and egoism, is always the same, and sometimes that relation is on the side of evil. Yet, the human being needs to pledge to direct that relation on the side of the good. In their works they warn about the possible crime, suffering and temptation on one hand, whereas, conscious for the unavoidable egoism, they propagate audacity, dignity and faith in altruism, on the other. One of the main ideas of the poem “Sterna” is the rebellion against underground forces of evil. In that struggle he does not pledge for an absolute victory of good over evil, which is different from Andrić’s ideas. His ultimate realization is that after all victories and defeats, evil and good remains in a relative balance, and that human accomplishments are based on maintenance of that balance.
To Andrić, violence is ephemeral because it is unnatural and because it wants to violate the logic of order. It can only temporarily prevail over good, but it cannot remain and rule for a longer period, because the world then would become chaotic, and Andrić believes in laws of harmony. He creates a large pleiad of characters representing violence, such as: Hafiz, Ibrahim – pasha, Husa Chickenthief, boss Yevrem. Andrić always puts the exposure of the value of altruism on the first place. That is personified in the act of the creation of world. He loves the world and is capable to feel hope for change, even when there are so many distorted things, because he sees the complexity of all events that create perfection.
8. Andrić, Ivo, Essay on Walt Whitman 1919.
9. Koneski, Blaže, The Lyra, Subjects and Characters, Kultura, Skopje, 1990, 379.